File I/O

File input-output in XC=BASIC was designed to be mostly compatible with CBM BASIC so that the same commands can be used for opening, reading from and writing to files. Since XC=BASIC is a strongly typed language, and typedness comes with restrictions, there are some small differences to be aware of. Those differences are explained on each command's reference page.

In addition, new commands have been added for binary writing and reading that allow convenient storing and recalling of simple or complex data structures, without the headache of encoding and decoding textual data.

The following guide focuses on the differences between CBM BASIC and XC=BASIC rather than explaining how to use the commands that are compatible. The Commodore-64 and 1541 User Guides explain almost everything you need to know about the "traditional" file I/O commands.

LOAD and SAVE

CBM BASIC's LOAD and SAVE commands can store and recall either BASIC programs or binary data to and from a peripheral device (e. g tape or disk drive). XC=BASIC is compiled to machine language and therefore it doesn't make much sense to support loading and saving BASIC programs. For this reason, LOAD and SAVE in XC=BASIC are used for loading and saving binary data only. To save a particular memory area to disk or tape, you must use the following command:

SAVE <filename>, <device_no>, <start_address>, <end_address>

Let's say you want to store the memory contents at $8000-$83FF (that is, 1K of data) on disk, you can use the following command:

SAVE "mydata", 8, $8000, $83FF

This will call the KERNAL function SAVE that will open the file and save the memory contents. The first two byte in the file will contain a pointer to the address $8000 so that LOAD will know where to recall data in memory if needed. These first two bytes are called the "load address".

Note

You may use both decimal or hexadecimal numbers in XC=BASIC for specifying addresses and other numbers as well.

When you wish to recall data from disk (or tape), you have two options: either you accept the load address in the file, or you specify a different address. To use the load address that is saved with the file, use the command:

LOAD <filename>, <device_no>

Whereas to specify a different address:

LOAD <filename>, <device_no>, <destination_address>

The latter form allows you to recall data to a different address in memory. For example:

LOAD "mydata", 8, $C000

The above command will read data that was saved above to a different address, in this case $C000-$C3FF.

Warning

If the destination address is specified in a LOAD statement, the first two bytes of the file will always be discarded, regardless of whether they were intended to serve as a load address or they're part of the actual data.

READ and WRITE

The PRINT# and INPUT# commands in CBM BASIC work with PETSCII-encoded data. XC=BASIC also supports PRINT# and INPUT#, and they behave almost exactly the same, which means that data saved in CBM BASIC should be readable in XC=BASIC and vice versa.

Apart from that, XC=BASIC supports reading and writing binary data. This means that any variable is written to a file will be written using the exact same binary representation as the variable's value is stored in memory. Binary output and input therefore allows you to save and restore data just as they are, without conversion.

The other advantage of binary I/O is that you can save and restore complex data structures (see User-Defined Types) easily, in one go. Check out the following example:

TYPE GAMESTATE
  playername$ AS STRING * 8
  score AS DECIMAL
  level AS BYTE
  monsterscount AS INT
END TYPE

DIM state AS GAMESTATE

REM -- save the game!
OPEN 2,8,2,"savegame,s,w"
WRITE #2, state
CLOSE 2

REM -- load a saved game!
OPEN 2,8,2,"savegame,s,r"
READ #2, state
CLOSE 2

This convenience comes with a cost: you must take extra care with the data types when using READ# and WRITE#. Since only the data is saved to the file, not the data type, READ# can only rely on what type of variable you specified as its argument(s). If the data is not the same type as the variable, you'll face unwanted behavior, as in the following example:

OPEN 2, 8, 2, "myfile,s,w" : REM open file for writing
WRITE #2, 5, 6, 7 : REM write the numbers 5, 6 and 7 (3 bytes all together)
CLOSE 2

DIM a AS INT : REM note a, b and c are integers
DIM b AS INT
DIM c AS INT

OPEN 2, 8, 2, "myfile,s,r" : REM open file for reading
READ #2, a, b, c : REM this will try to read 6 bytes
PRINT a, b, c
CLOSE 2

In the example above we specify the literal numbers 5, 6 and 7 as output data. The compiler will conclude the data type by looking at the numbers and it will treat them as BYTE type as per these rules. The READ #2, a, b, c statement however will try to fetch 2 bytes per each variable, resulting in wrong values.

Warning

Use the type conversion functions CBYTE, CINT, CWORD, CLONG and CFLOAT to make sure that the correct data type is output.